What modulates our Sun? The majority of science work on the principle that the Sun is self modulating and each solar cycle is a product of a random number generator. There are others that suspect the Sun is modulated by the planets with a special emphasis on Uranus & Neptune. Thanks to Carl Smith who has recently left us we have new knowledge that significantly adds to Jose, Landscheidt & Charvàtovà's work.

Geoff Sharp

Negative Sunspots

Moving Magnetic Features (MMF) being ejected from Sunspot 1101 at around 6000 kph. Some building new zones and others canceling out opposite magnetic flux. Notice the spiral effect along with the creation and destruction of negative zones.

Many thanks go to Carl's brother Dave for providing the Domain, Server and Software.