What modulates our Sun? The majority of science work on the principle that the Sun is self modulating and each solar cycle is a product of a random number generator. There are others that suspect the Sun is modulated by the planets with a special emphasis on Uranus & Neptune. Thanks to Carl Smith who has recently left us we have new knowledge that significantly adds to Jose, Landscheidt & Charvàtovà's work.

Geoff Sharp

PDO versus ENSO

The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a long time record going back to 1900 that measures the spatial temperature changes in the Pacific ocean. There is a 30 year trend of cool periods followed by warm periods that are very closely associated with the ENSO record (El Nino/La Nina). Below is a diagram of the temperature changes that occur in the Pacific and what constitutes a warm or cool phase.

Many thanks go to Carl's brother Dave for providing the Domain, Server and Software.