question

What modulates our Sun? The majority of science work on the principle that the Sun is self modulating and each solar cycle is a product of a random number generator. There are others that suspect the Sun is modulated by the planets with a special emphasis on Uranus & Neptune. Thanks to Carl Smith who has recently left us we have new knowledge that significantly adds to Jose, Landscheidt & Charvàtovà's work.

Geoff Sharp

New Theory about Sunspots and Solar Activity

How the Sun’s Output Fluctuates

Dr. Jerome R. Lurtz

                                                                               1/23/2011              

 

The Sun is a variable star.  Fortunately, it is actually very stable over small time intervals [10,000 years].  The variability is on the order of 0.22%.  This small change is observable over a sunspot cycle of approximately 11 years.

The reason for the Sun’s variability is due to how the Sun’s Core creates energy.  The following steps describe that energy production (starting at a maximum output):

1)      The outer surface of the Core is where Hydrogen [H] is burned to Helium [He].

2)      At maximum output,  the readily H has been burned to He.

3)      The He is now interfering with the burning process so that less energy is being produced.  This is called He poisoning.  See literature about the Tokamak.  The volume of the Sun above the core slightly decreases.

4)      The He slowly migrates into the interior of the Core.

5)      The Core gradually increases in density [other burned products are there, Oxygen, Carbon, etc].

6)      The increase in density increases the gravitational attraction of the Core.  The gravitational attraction [density, caused by both gravity and pressure] is kept in check by the energy production at the Core’s surface. 

7)      The increased gravitational attraction increases the density of H at the surface of the Core. 

8)      The H at the Core’s surface increases its burn rate creating more energy.  This, in turn, causes the volume of the Sun above the Core to increase.

9)      This cycle repeats at an 11 years cycle.  But every 350-400 years, the Core’s surface is so poisoned that it takes 30 to 50 years to complete the He migration and the Core’s surface  H replenishment.

The He in the Core is estimated at 75% and the H is estimated at 25%.  Above the Core’s surface the H is estimated at 75% and the He at 25%. 

The interaction of gravity, pressure, and energy production are the three main variables in determining the total energy production from the Sun.

The creation of Sun spots is a function of the maximum energy production areas on the surface of the Core.  The Core does not produce energy uniformly over its surface; it has high energy production areas and low energy production areas.  A high energy production area will produce intense magnetic fields and upwelling’s from the Core into the Radiative zone and into the Convective zone.   Between the intense energy production areas are quiet areas with only a minimal amount of H available for burning. 

The planetary motions will increase or decrease density effects in the Core, therefore, influencing the Sun’s energy output.

Comments

Thanks Dr. Lurtz for outlinng

Thanks Dr. Lurtz for outlinng your theory. The golden question still remains: What controls the length of the 11 year cycle?

Why does it take 11 years to cycle from high to low production rates?

Sunspot Cycle Dr. Jerome R.

Sunspot Cycle

Dr. Jerome R. Lurtz

                                                                                 2/1/2011               

 

The Sun is a variable star.  Fortunately, it is actually very stable over small time intervals [10,000 years].  The variability is on the order of 0.22%.  This small change is observable over a sunspot cycle of approximately 11 years.

When the surface of the core has excess H [H -Hydrogen, He- Helium] available, the volume above the core’s surface will expand and contract based on H->He energy production. 

During a contraction, the density of H increases, energy production increases, vertical convection increases and the Sunspot number increases.  The energy production on the Core’s surface is not uniform; it is more like the light boiling of a pot of water with many different localized vertical convection cells.

During an expansion, the density of H decreases, energy production decreases, vertical convection in reduced and the Sunspot number drops.    

The vertical convection cells are rich in ionized particles.  These plumes are unbalanced with vertically descending ionized H particles [the H at the Core’s surface must be replenished due to the burning].  The descending H creates intense magnetic fields. 

Due to the gravity, pressure, energy production, and available H, this cycle repeats every 9 to 13 years.  Every 2 to 4 hundred years, the He poisoning takes effect and H replacement takes longer [see previous paper].    

Dr . Lurtz

Breakthroughs in Sun spots

Breakthroughs in Sun spots

Explanation of Solar Data by Padmanabha Rao Effect http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/1010/InterpretationSolarSpectra.pdf

  View the two pictures from the above website:

1. Notably, enlarged Sun’s picture at 1600Å (UV) reveals Sun spot as black area because UV emission did not take place from that area. Solar X-rays at 94Å have caused UV emission probably from number of holes that appear like rings or chemical structures around black area and also from holes formed like ring little away from black area. The Sun spot seen black since Sun’s core material at the site of fission might have been blown away after fission and emission of X-rays and Bharat radiation. Fission seems to be taking place at little deep from Sun’s surface. UV is seen like beams from numerous gaps throughout the Sun’s surface.

 2. Solar disc at 4500 Å (visible light). Sun spots are seen black because visible light did not take place from those areas, since Sun’s core material at the site of fission (black areas) might have been blown away after fission and emission of X-rays and Bharat radiation. The fission products (radioisotopes) from fallout widely spread throughout Sun’s surface might be causing uniform brightness at the central region of Sun’s disc at 211 Å (Bharat Radiation) and at 4500 Å (visible light). This provides the key why Earth receives visible light and infrared radiation from central areas of Sun’s disc during Sun’s waning period. 

 Further Reference:

Solar XUV is identified as Bharat Radiation emission from radioisotopes produced by uranium fission: http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/1010/XUV-Linked-to-Bharat-Radiation.html

M.A.Padmanabha Rao

Many thanks go to Carl's brother Dave for providing the Domain, Server and Software.